The saffron is a semi tropical plant and it is well tolerated in places with mild winters and hot and dry summers. The resistance of saffron is very high in cold weather, but since its growth in autumn and winter, it usually needs a mild air in these days. During the sleep or rest period of the plant (summer) rain or irrigation is harmful to it, so it is not possible to cultivate it in wet and warm areas.
Sunny lands without trees, which are also not exposed to cold winds, are suitable for saffron growth. However, in some villages of Birjand and Ghaen, they are planted under shades of barberry bushes and almond trees that are irrigated in the summer.
The best temperature for growing this plant is 20-35 degrees Celsius and at altitudes between 1500-2000 meters above sea level.
Suitable soil for growing saffron
Saffron bulb remains about 5-7 years in the Earth, so the soil should be a lightweight or combination of sand and clay that saffron bulb can withstand during this longtime to providing the necessary food for plant growth and resistance to weather conditions.
Therefore, in order to grow the plant properly and produce a good and high quality product, the fertile and drained land without a tree with soil (loamy, lime, clayey and sandy) and limestone, whose PH is between7-8, is better than moist and acidic areas and Saffron does not grow well in areas with rubble or weeds.
Selecting the best saffron bulb and the best time for saffron cultivation
The construction of new fields of saffron is only possible by saffron bulbs planting, so the preparation and selection of high quality saffron bulbs is very important for producing high quality products.
Saffron bulbs can be transferred from soil to another warehouse or farm, considering the rest period of the saffron bulbs, which lasts from May to August; it can be taken toward the removal of saffron bulbs at this time.
It is better to cultivate the saffron bulbs after it is taken out of the ground, in order to continue to rest on the new ground.
It is necessary to refrain to taken out of saffron bulbs at another time, because at this time some saffron bulbs may be ready for budding.
Saffron bulb cultivation
To plant the saffron bulbs, first pour one-row pits with a shovel and place 3-15 bulbs in each hole, Planting depth of bulbs is 20 centimeters and should be raised upwards when planting bulbs; The bulbs are protected at a depth of 20 centimeters from the cold of winter and summer heat.
The cultivated land is abandoned in the same way until autumn irrigation, before irrigation, almost 10-20 tons of old manure is spread on the ground with shovels.
Approximately 10-15 days after the planting of saffron bulbs, irrigation should be carried out, in different parts of Khorasan in Iran, depending on the weather conditions of the region, the beginning of the irrigation of saffron begins from mid-October to the first of November.
After the first irrigation and after soil hardening, the soil surface should be softened, but in such a way that the Saffron bulbs are not damage.